Saturday, March 28, 2009



Sense of Commitment - Devoted , dedicated and responsive in what ever action

Sense of Belonging - Ownership – security usage and maintenance

Sense of Guilt - Aware and realize the effect of failure for not fulfilling expectations or observing correct form guideline or procedures

Sense of Sin - Realized , acknowledge and regret of whatever wrong doings.

Sense of Shame - Having strong believe in protecting and preserving self – esteem and self – pride from moral decadence as a result of wrong doings ( written and unwritten rules and practices )


Pioneer Nurses of West Virginia
Pioneer Nurses of West Virginia, the first online to honor the Pioneer Nurses of West Virginia, is in conjunction with my other West Virginia sites that memorialize our ancestors, as well as the history of West Virginia.
For the purposes of this website, the Pioneer Nurses are those who were nurses in West Virginia from the 1860s through 1935. The year 1935 was chosen when I bought a vintage booklet that contains a list of all registered nurses in West Virginia from the time licensing was required (1907), through 1935.
Also included here are the nurses from West Virginia who served in wars, from the Civil War through the Korean War.
But this site will NOT be limited to only those nurses (pre-1935) who were "registered." There were MANY early nurses who practiced as nurses but were never licensed. Some graduated from organized schools of nursing and others studied under a physician. Legally, if they didn't get a license when it became a requirement, they weren't registered nurses - - but they were, indeed, nurses. They will be included in a separate section.
Visitors to this site are invited to submit photos and biographies of the nurses.

Submitted by

Linda Cunningham Fluharty RN.


pict5aThe Zwerdling Nursing Archives
The Zwerding Nursing Archives specializes in rare art and photographic postcards, selected for historic significance, artistic composition, and condition, dating from 1893 to 2004, related to the nursing profession worldwide. The primary functions of the ZNA are to preserve these images and to make them accessible to the nursing profession and to those associated with it.

The History of Nursing Education


Nursing Schools in Nova Scotia

pic2b At first enrolments in nursing schools were very small, but by the beginning of the twentieth century it became apparent that the hospital trained nurse would dominate the field and the number of nursing schools and nursing students quickly increased. The greatest expansion of nursing schools in Canada occurred in the first three decades of the twentieth century. In 1901 there were 65 nursing schools across the country and a total of 280 nurses and student nurses, by 1930 there were 218 nursing schools and over 9000 student nurses in training.

Hospital administrators immediately began to recognize the improvements the trained nurses were making to patient care, and began to replaced their untrained nursing staff with student nurses, who spent two or three years working in the hospital wards in exchange for training and certification. This system of staffing hospitals and training nurses not only enabled the hospital to improve their patient care, but it also enabled them to keep up with demands for increases in patient services. As more nurses were needed, the number of students admitted to the nursing school increased. This system continued as the dominant system for staffing hospitals in Canada until the 1940s and was the basis of training nurses until the 1970s.



Nursing involves the giving of care to the patients together with other members of the health care team including doctors. The person in the centre of these activities is a biopsychososial being called the PATIENT. Nurses exist because of these important individuals – THE PATIENTS.


A PROFESSIONAL NURSE is one who works with her patients at the highest level of knowledge, skills and a caring attitude while adhering to a set of code of ethics.


Of importance in the definition are:
1. Highest level – best of the highest possible standards.
2. Knowledge – Need to be aware of advances in knowledge and technologies in medical sciences.
3. Skill – Competency in the various skills required in nursing.
4. Caring attitude – Recognizing the need of the patient to be managed with compassion, courtesy, respect and dignity.
5. Code of ethics – A set of rules to guide professional behaviour.

All the above are ingredients of the professional development of a nurse.
The early professional development of a nurse is initiated by training schools but it does not end here. Professional development is a continuous process in the nurses career. This is important if we nurses are to gain respect and recognition.

There is a need for the nurse to be assertive and to function as an equal member of the health care team. This would become possible if she develops appropriately in the following three arrears:


1. The level of care provided in a general intensive care unit (ICU) is more complex than delivered in a general ward.
2. It is about 3.8 times more expensive to maintain ICU than a general ward.
3. currently, in United States the provision of ICU costs about 15% of the total hospital care.
4. Level of ICU care defers from hospital to hospital in Malaysia, according to facilities available.
5. In Malaysia managing an ICU bed cost about RM 2,000/ per day compared to an ordinary 3rd class bed which costs about RM200/per day.

The philosophy of the unit is that each patient is a person with a unique human dignity for whom medical personnel assume the responsibility of giving comprehensive, safe, effective medical & nursing care and protection.


 To provide directions in the nursing management of ICU.
 To develop protocols and guidelines in the running of ICU since it demands an extensive commitment of time, manpower, equipment and money.
 To manage critically ill patients with potential reversible pathology who require intensive monitoring and life support system.
 To provide training and skills for medical and paramedical staffs in the field of critical care.

Our vision

To provide nursing knowledge that can be applied in the clinical setting when caring for real people.

 Reflect current knowledge of the science and art of nursing in today’s world.
 Provide clear explanations of the pathophysiologic processes of various disorders.
 Emphasize the nurse’s role in collaborative care.
 Prioritize nursing interventions specific to altered human responses to illness.
 Foster critical-thinking skills
 Offer visual tools for learners

Top Secret Fat